What is Diabetes?

Insulin

Insulin Resistance

Diabetes Market

Diabetes



Insulin:
Both diabetes Type I and Type II share one central feature: elevated blood sugar (glucose) levels due to absolute or relative insufficiencies of insulin, a hormone produced by the pancreas. Insulin is a key regulator of the body's metabolism. It normally works in the following way:

  • During and immediately after a meal the process of digestion breaks carbohydrates down into sugar molecules (of which glucose is one) and proteins into amino acids.
  • Right after the meal, glucose and amino acids are absorbed directly into the bloodstream, and blood glucose levels rise sharply; glucose levels after a meal are called postprandial levels.
  • The rise in blood glucose levels signals important cells in the pancreas, called beta cells, to secrete insulin, which pours into the bloodstream. Within ten minutes after a meal insulin rises to its peak level.
  • Insulin then enables glucose and amino acids to enter cells in the body, particularly muscle and liver cells. Insulin and other hormones direct whether these nutrients will be burned for energy or stored for future use.
  • When insulin levels are high, the liver stops producing glucose and stores it in other forms until the body needs it again.
As blood glucose levels reach their peak, the pancreas reduces the production of insulin. About two to four hours after a meal both blood glucose and insulin are at low levels, with insulin being slightly higher. The blood glucose levels are then referred to as fasting blood glucose concentrations.


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